Solar water disinfection (SODIS) has been in existence for more than 30 years. The technique consists of placing water into transparent plastic or glass containers (normally 2L PET beverage bottles) which are then exposed to the sun. Exposure times vary from 6 to 48 hours depending on the intensity of sunlight and sensitivity of the pathogens. Its germicidal effect is based on the combined effect of thermal heating of solar light and UV radiation.
Diagram of the SODIS technique
How it Works
Transparent containers are filled with contaminated water and placed in direct sunlight for at least 6 hours, after which time it is safe to drink. Solar disinfection containers (reactors) can be glass or plastic (usually polyethylene-terephthalate – P.E.T.) – even plastic bags have been used. Plastic bottles are more robust than glass bottles since few glass bottles survive an off-road journey in the back of a 4-wheel drive vehicle or a fall from a roof. It is recommended that solar disinfected water should be consumed within 48 hours to avoid the possibility of post exposure re-growth. The efficiency of the basic protocol can be enhanced by adding a number of additional steps such as:
- Placing filled bottles on reflective surfaces to boost the amount of sunlight absorbed by the reactor (Kehoe et al. 2001, Mani et al. 2006).
- Painting the underside of the SODIS reactor black to enhance solar heating.
- Shaking a two-thirds filled bottle vigorously for 30 seconds before topping up and sealing, to increase initial levels of dissolved oxygen for solar induced oxidative inactivation..
- Filtering the water before filling the reactor.
1. Asiimwe JK, et al. Field Comparison of Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS) Efficacy between Glass and PET Plastic Bottles under Sub-Saharan Weather Conditions. Journal of Water and Health. 2013;11.4:729-737. doi: 10.2166/wh.2013.197.
2. Dangour AD et al. Interventions to improve water quality and supply, sanitation and hygiene practices, and their effects on the nutritional status of children (Review). 2013, Issue 8, p1-100. The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
3. McGuigan KG et al. Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS): A review from bench-top to roof-top. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2012;235-236:29-46.
4. du Preez M et al. Solar disinfection of drinking water (SODIS) in the prevention of dysentery in Kenyan children aged under 5 years. Environmental Science & Technology. 2011, 45 (21), pp 9315–9323. PMID:21936492
5. McGuigan KG, et al. A high compliance randomised controlled field trial of solar disinfection (SODIS) of drinking water and its impact on childhood diarrhoea in rural Cambodia. Environmental Science & Technology. 2011;45(18):7862-7867. PMID: 21827166
6. Ubomba-Jaswa E, et al. A preliminary Ames-fluctuation assay assessment of the genotoxicity of drinking water that has been solar disinfected in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Journal of Water & Health. 2010;8(4):712-719. PMID: 20705982
7. Boyle M, et al. Bactericidal effect of solar water disinfection under real sunlight conditions. Applied & Environmental Microbiology. 2008;74(10):2997-3001. PMID: 18359829.
8. McGuigan KG et al. Batch solar disinfection (SODIS) inactivates oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum and cysts of Giardia muris in drinking water. J Applied Microbiology. 2006;101(2):453-463. PubMed I.D. 16882154
9. Lonnen J et al. Solar and photocatalytic disinfection of protozoan, fungal and bacterial microbes in drinking water. Water Research. 2005;39(5):877-883. PubMed I.D. 15743634
10. Conroy RM, et al. Use of solar disinfection protects children under 6 years from cholera. Archive of Disease in Children, 2001:85, 293-295. PubMed I.D. 11567937
11. Wegelin M, et al. Does sunlight change the material and content of PET bottles? Journal of Water Science Research & Technology - Aqua 2001;50,125-135.
12. Kehoe SC, et al. Effect of agitation, turbidity, aluminium foil reflectors and volume on inactivation efficiency of batch-process solar disinfectors. Water Research 2001;35(4):1061-1065. PubMed I.D. 11235872
13. McGuigan KG et al. Solar disinfection of drinking water contained in transparent plastic bottles: characterizing the bacterial inactivation process. Journal of Applied Microbiology 1998;84(6):1138-1148. PubMed I.D. 9717300
14. Conroy RM et al. Solar disinfection of drinking water and incidence of diarrhoea in Maasai children: a controlled field trial. The Lancet 1996;348:1695-97. PubMed I.D. 8973432
15. Joyce TM, et al. Inactivation of faecal bacteria in drinking water by solar heating. Applied Environmental Microbiology 1996;62(2):399-402. PubMed I.D. 8593045